Chicago Digital and Commercial Printing

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Accordion Fold: A folding technique in which two or more folds open like an accordion and exist parallel to one another.

Aqueous Coating: A coating method used to enhance photo appearance, protect against wear, and provide rub resistance.

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Banding: A print defect made up of perceived parallel lines in solid or halftone pattern area fills that do not appear smooth. Blocked nozzles, nozzles not firing completely straight, or poor calibration causes this defect.

Bindery: A firm that focuses on finishing techniques for printed materials or the finishing area of a printing company.

Bleed: A printed image that extends over the edge of a sheet after the trimming process.

Blind Embossing: A method for pressing an image into a sheet that does not involve foil or ink.

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Caliper: A unit of paper measurement based on the thickness of paper in increments of one thousandth of an inch.

Coated Paper: Any type of printing paper that has a smooth finish and clay coating.

Color Matching System: A system used to compare and match color that uses formulated ink.

Color Separations: A preparation process for artwork, photos, etc., that breaks down images into the four primary printing colors: magenta, cyan, yellow, and black.

Cover Paper: A type of printing paper that is heavy enough for use as a book cover or folder.

Cromalin: A term DuPont uses to describe a color proof.

Crop: The process of cutting or trimming off portions of an image or photo.

Crop Marks: Lines that are printed on a sheet to indicate where it needs trimming.

Crossover: An image or text that stretches from one page across the gutter, over and into its facing page.

Cyan: The blue color that is one of the four standard process colors used in printing.

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Die: During the finishing process, an imaged block or metal ruler that is used to cut a shape out of paper.

Die-Cutting: A method for cutting a shape out of paper.

Dot: A small element that composes a halftone. Printers use an instrument called a "loupe" to view the dots that make up printed images.

Dot Gain or Spread: The possible increase in dot size when it is transferred from plate to paper.

Drilling: Use of a drill to make holes in thick stacks of paper, so it can be placed in a ring binder.

Dummy: A mock-up of a printed piece that illustrates its final size and position of images and/or text.

Duotone: An image composed of two printed colors referred to as a halftone.

Dylux: A term DuPont uses to describe an inexpensive photographic proof from negatives where all colors are shown in blue.

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Emboss: A method for pressing images into paper that creates a raised relief effect.

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Flood: A method that uses ink, plastic coating, or varnish to completely cover a printed page.

Foil: A type of coating for rolls or plastic sheets that contains pigment or metallic ink used for embossing or stamping foil.

Foil Emboss / Stamp: A method in which a die stamps or embosses an image with foil.

Four-color Process: A method that uses a combination of the four primary printing colors (magenta, cyan, yellow, and black) to create all other colors.

French Fold: A type of fold that uses a single sheet of paper folded in half to create a page and in which two folds face each other at right angles.

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Ghosting: An unintended faint image on a printed sheet usually caused by transfer of an image from the back of one sheet to the front of another sheet.

Gloss: A type of finish or coating that makes an image or photo shine and reflect light.

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Halftone: A method that converts dots into a continuous tone for printing.

Hickey: An unintended spot that mistakenly appears in a printed image and that is usually caused by dirt, dust, or ink.

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Indicia: The location on printed matter that is used for postal information.

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Kiss Die-Cut: A method for cutting the top layer of a thin sheet of paper without cutting the bottom layer.

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Lines Per Inch: The amount of rows of dots per inch in a halftone image.

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Magenta: The red color that is one of the four standard process colors used in printing.

Makeready: All of the processes that a press requires in preparation for printing.

MatchPrint: 3M integral color proofs.

Matte Finish: A type of ink finish that creates a "dull" or flat look on paper.

Moire: An unintended pattern in a photograph caused by incorrect screen angles.

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Offsetting: A surface used to transfer ink. In some cases, the term describes instances in which images from a recently printed sheet mistakenly transfer to another sheet (also known as ghosting).

Offset Paper: Paper that does not have any coating.

OK Sheet: A press sheet that must be considered final and approved prior to production.

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Perfect Bind: A method for attaching pages of a printed piece to its cover and spine, usually by a gluing process.

Perfecting Press: A press that allows printing on both sides of a sheet in one pass through the press.

PMS: An acronym for the term Pantone Color Matching System, a standard for the printing industry that contains over 1,000 colors.

Process Colors: A term for the four standard process colors used in printing: cyan (blue), magenta (red), yellow, and black. The colors are as also known as the acronym CMYK (cyan (C), magenta (M), yellow (Y), and black (K).

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Register Marks: Marks or lines on the press sheet that guide all the people involved in the entire printing process.

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Saddle-stitch: A method for attaching pages in which they are bound together with staples in the fold seam.

Score: A crease that is intentionally made on a sheet of paper, so that it folds easily.

Self-cover: A technique that uses the same type of paper for the inside pages as for the cover.

Specifications: A term used to describe a print order in exact language.

Spot PMS Colors: Refers to a method of printing in which each color is printed with its own ink. In contrast, process color printing uses four inks (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) to produce all other colors.

Spot Varnish: A technique that allows the use of varnish to highlight certain areas of a photo.

Stochastic: A technique that creates images with more lifelike, vibrant tones by randomizing the dot pattern on the printing plate.

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Touchplate: A technique used to intensify images with vibrant colors that lie outside of the color range that CMYK inks can produce.

Trapping: A technique that allows for printing an ink over another one already on a sheet.

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UV Coating: A type of fluid laminate that is usually bonded and cured with with UV light.

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Varnish: A type of colorless liquid used to protect and enhance the appearance of a printed surface.

Vignette Halftone: A type of halftone image in which the background fades to white gradually.

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Web Press: A type of press that uses rolls of paper for printing.

Work and Tumble: A method of printing in which a sheet is turned over from the gripper to the tail, after being printed on one side, and the same guide and plate are used for the opposite side.

Work and Turn: A method of printing in which a sheet is printed on one side and then turned over from left to right with the same side guide and plate for the opposite side.

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